Griffith University

Sandra Duffy

Name: Sandra Duffy
Position: PhD Student
Research Area: Malaria Drug Discovery
Qualifications: BSc Applied Biology

Biography: Sandra completed a BSc in Applied Biology from Manchester Metropolitan University, UK in 1998. Since graduating Sandra has worked in the area of biological research; 2 years in medical microbiology, 6 in diagnostics, 5 in the pharmaceutical sector and 16 in academia and academic not for profit collaborations (Discovery Biology). In October 2017, she commenced her study in the field of Malaria for attainment of a PhD by research. Sandra’s PhD project title is: Effects of in vitro culturing conditions on artemisinin mechanism of action and resistance studies in early ring stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites.

Discovery Biology


Lydia Jordaan, Malcolm T. Ndlovu, Sinethemba Mkhize, Siyabonga Ngubane, Leigh Loots, Sandra Duffy, Vicky M. Avery, Prinessa Chellan, Investigating the antiplasmodial activity of substituted cyclopentadienyl rhodium and iridium complexes of 2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole. Journal of Organometallic Chemistry. 2022, 962.

Ashton TD, Ngo A, Favuzza P, Bullen HE, Gancheva MR, Romeo O, Schneider MP, Nguyen N, Steel RWJ, Duffy S, Lowes KN, Sabroux HJ, Avery VM, Boddey JA, Wilson DW, Cowman AF, Gilson PR and Sleebs BE. Property Activity Refinement of 2‑Anilino 4‑Amino Substituted Quinazolines as Antimalarials with Fast Acting Asexual Parasite Activity. Bioorganic Chemistry. 2021 Sep 21.

Laleu B, Akao Y, Ochida A, Duffy S, Lucantoni L, Shackleford D, Chen G, Katneni K, Chiu F, White K, Chen X, Sturm A, Dechering K, Crespo B, Sanz L, Wang B, Wittlin S, Charman S, Avery VM, Cho N and Kamaura M. Discovery and Structure-Activity Relationships of Quinazolinone-2-carboxamide Derivatives as Novel Orally Efficacious Antimalarials. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2021 Sep 9; 64(17): 12582-12602.

Okaniwa M, Shibata A, Ochida A, Akao Y, White KL, Shackleford DM, Duffy S, Lucantoni L, Dey S, Striepen J, Yeo T, Mok S, Aguiar ACC, Sturm A, Crespo B, Sanz LM, Churchyard A, Baum J, Pereira DB, Guido RVC, Dechering KJ, Wittlin S, Uhlemann AC, Fidock DA, Niles JC, Avery VM, Charman SA and Laleu B. Repositioning and Characterization of 1-(pyridin-4-yl)pyrrolidin-2-one Derivatives as Plasmodium Cytoplasmic Prolyl-tRNA Synthetase Inhibitors. ACS Infectious Diseases. 2021 Jun 11; 7(6): 1680-1689.

Priebbenow DL, Mathiew M, Shi DH, Harjani JR, Beveridge JG, Chavchich M, Edstein MD, Duffy S, Avery VM, Jacobs RT, Brand S, Shackleford DM, Wang W, Zhong L, Lee G, Tay E, Barker H, Crighton E, White KL, Charman SA, De Paoli A, Creek DJ and Baell JB. Discovery of Potent and Fast-Acting Antimalarial Bis-1,2,4-Triazines. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.  2021 Apr 8; 64(7): 4150-4162.

Chellan P, Avery VM, Duffy S, Land KM, Tam CC, Kim JH, Cheng LW, Romero-Canelón I and Sadler PJ. Bioactive half-sandwich Rh and Ir bipyridyl complexes containing artemisinin. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. (50-year anniversary issue). 2021 Mar 3; 2021 Mar 3; 219: 111408.

Nguyen W, Dans MG, Ngo A, Gancheva MR, Romeo O, Duffy S, de Koning-Ward TF, Lowes KN, Sabroux HJ, Avery VM, Wilson DW, Gilson PR and Sleebs BE. Structure Activity Refinement of Phenylsulfonyl Piperazines as Antimalarials that Block Erythrocytic Invasion. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2021 Mar 15; 214: 113253.

Kotzé TJ, Duffy S, Avery VM, Jordaanc A, Warner DF, Loots L, Smith GS and Chellan P. Synthesis and antimicrobial study of organoiridium amido-sulfadoxine complexes. Inorganica Chimica Acta. 2021 March 1; 517: 120175.

Zandi L, Makungu M, Munissi JJE, Duffy S, Puttreddy R, von der Heiden D, Rissanen K, Avery VM, Nyandoro SS and Erdélyi M. Secoiridoids and Iridoids from Morinda asteroscep. Journal of Natural Products. 2020 Sep 25; 83(9): 2641-2646.

Atilaw Y, Muiva-Mutisya L, Bogaerts J, Duffy S, Valkonen A, Heydenreich M, Avery VM, Rissanen K, Erdélyi M and Yenesew A. Prenylated Flavonoids from the Roots of Tephrosia rhodesica. Journal of Natural Products.  2020 Aug 28; 83(8): 2390-2398.

Maeda G, Munissi JJE, Lindblad S, Duffy S, Pelletier J, Avery VM, Nyandoro SS and Erdélyi M. A Meroisoprenoid, Heptenolides, and C-Benzylated Flavonoids from Sphaerocoryne gracilis ssp. gracilis. Journal of Natural Products. 2020 Feb 28; 83(2): 316-322.

Kleks G, Duffy S, Lucantoni L, Avery VM, Carroll AR. Orthoscuticellines A-E, β-Carboline Alkaloids from the Bryozoan Orthoscuticella ventricosa Collected in Australia. Journal of Natural Products. 2020 Feb 28; 83(2): 422-428.

Nyandoro SS, Maeda G, Munissi JJE, Gruhonjic A, Fitzpatrick PA, Lindblad S, Duffy S, Pelletier J, Pan F, Puttreddy R, Avery VM, Erdélyi M. A New Benzopyranyl Cadenane Sesquiterpene and Other Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Metabolites from Cleistochlamys Kirkii. Molecules. 2019 Jul 29; 24(15): 2746.

Norcross NR, Wilson C, Baragaña B, Hallyburton I, Osuna-Cabello M, Norval S, Riley J, Fletcher D, Sinden R, Delves M, Ruecker A, Duffy S, Meister S, Antonova-Koch Y, Crespo B, de Cózar C, Sanz LS, Gamo FJ, Avery VM, Frearson JA, Gray DW, Fairlamb AH, Winzeler EA, Waterson D, Campbell SF, Willis PA, Read KD, Gilbert I. Substituted Aminoacetamides as Novel Leads for Malaria Treatment. ChemMedChem. 2019 Jul 17; 14(14): 1329-1335.

Robertson LP, Lucantoni L, Duffy S, Avery VM and Carroll AR. Acrotrione: An Oxidized Xanthene from the Roots of Acronychia pubescens. Journal of Natural Products. 2019 Apr 26; 82(4): 1019-1023.

Xue L, Shi DH, Harjani JR, Huang F, Beveridge J, Dingjan T, Ban K, Diab S, Duffy S, Lucantoni L, Fletcher S, Chiu FCK, Blundell SA, Ellis K, Ralph SA, Wirjanata G, Teguh S, Noviyanti R, Chavchich M, Creek DJ, Price R, Marfurt J, Charman SA, Cuellar M, Strasser J, Dahlin J, Walters MA, Edstein M, Avery VM and Baell JB. 3,3’-Disubstituted 5,5’-Bi(1,2,4-triazine) derivatives with Potent in vitro and in vivo Antimalarial Activity. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2019 Mar 14; 62(5): 2485-2498.

Vinh NB, Drinkwater N, Malcolm TR, Kassiou M, Lucantoni L, Grin PM, Butler GS, Duffy S, Overall CM, Avery VM, Scammells PJ and McGowan S. Hydroxamic Acid Inhibitors Provide Cross-Species Inhibition of Plasmodium M1 and M17 Aminopeptidases. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2019 62(2): 622-640.

Leven M, Held J, Duffy S, Alves Avelar LA, Meister S, Delves M, Plouffe D, Kuna K, Tschan S, Avery VM, Winzeler EA, Mordmüller B and Kurz T. 8-Aminoquinolines with an Aminoxyalkyl Side Chain Exert in vitro Dual-Stage Antiplasmodial Activity.  ChemMedChem. 2019 Feb 19; 14(4): 501-511.

Chellan P, Avery VM, Duffy S, Triccas JA, Nagalingam G, Tam C, Cheng LW, Liu J, Land KM, Clarkson GJ, Romero-Canelón I and Sadler PJ. Organometallic conjugates of the drug sulfadoxine for combatting antimicrobial resistance. Chemistry – A European Journal. 2018 July; 24(40): 10078-10090.

Senadeera SPD, Robertson LP, Duffy S, Wang Y, Avery VM and Carroll A. β-Triketone-Monoterpene Hybrids from the Flowers of the Australian Tree Corymbia intermedia. Journal of Natural Products. 2018 Nov 26; 81(11): 2455-2461.

Xie SC, Gillett DL, Spillman NJ, Tsu C, Luth MR, Ottilie S, Duffy S, Gould A, Hales P, Seager BA, Charron CL, Bruzzese F, Yang X, Zhao X, Huang SC, Hutton CA, Burrows JN, Winzeler EA, Avery VM, Dick LR and Tilley L. Target Validation and Identification of Novel Boronate Inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum Proteasome. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2018 Nov 21; 61(22): 10053-10066.

Diedrich D, Stenzel K, Hesping E, Antonova-Koch Y, Gebru T, Duffy S, Fisher G, Schöler A, Meister S, Kurz T, Avery VM, Winzeler EA, Held J, Andrews KT and Hansen FK. One-pot, multi-component synthesis and structure-activity relationships of peptoid-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors targeting malaria parasites. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2018 Oct 5; 158: 801-813.

Duffy S and Avery VM. Plasmodium falciparum In Vitro Culture – The Highs and Lows. Trends in Parasitology. [Invited opinion] 2018 Oct; 34(10): 812-813.

Duffy S and Avery VM. Routine in vitro culture of Plasmodium falciparum: experimental consequences? Trends in Parasitology. [Invited review] 2018 July; 34(7): 564-575.

Kumar R, Duffy S, Avery VM, Carroll AR and Davis RA. Microthecaline A: A Novel Quinoline Serrulatane Alkaloid Isolated from the Roots of the Australian Desert Plant Eremophila microtheca. Journal of Natural Products. 2018 Apr 27; 81(4): 1079-1083.

Buedenbender L, Habener LJ, Grkovic T, Kurtböke Dİ, Duffy S, Avery VM and Carroll AR. HSQC–TOCSY Fingerprinting for Prioritization of Polyketide- and Peptide-Producing Microbial Isolates. Journal of Natural Products. 2018 Apr 27; 81(4): 957-965.

Robertson LP, Duffy S, Wang Y, Wang D,  Avery VM and Carroll AR. Pimentelamines A-C, Indole Alkaloids Isolated from the Leaves of the Australian Tree Flindersia pimenteliana. Journal of Natural Products. 2017 Dec 22; 80(12): 3211-3217.

Stenzel K, Chua MJ, Duffy S, Antonova-Koch Y, Meister S, Hamacher A, Kassack MU, Winzeler EA, Avery VM, Kurz T, Andrews KT and Hansen FK. Design and synthesis of terephthalic acid-based histone deacetylase inhibitors with dual stage anti-Plasmodium activity. ChemMedChem. 2017 Oct 9; 12(19): 1627-1636.

Vanaerschot M, Lucantoni L, Li T, Combrinck JM, Ruecker A, Kumar TRS, Rubiano K, Ferreira PE, Siciliano G, Gulati S, Henrich PP, Ng CL, Murithi JM, Corey VC, Duffy S, Lieberman OJ, Veiga MI, Sinden RE, Alano P, Delves MJ, Lee Sim K, Winzeler EA, Egan TJ, Hoffman SL, Avery VM and Fidock DA. Hexahydroquinolines are antimalarial candidates with potent blood-stage and transmission-blocking activity. Nature Microbiology. 2017 Aug 14; 2: 1403–1414.

Kumar R, Duffy S, Avery VM and Davis RA. Synthesis of antimalarial amide analogues based on the plant serrulatane diterpenoid 3,7,8-trihydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 2017 Sep 1; 27(17): 4091-4095.

Duffy S, Sykes ML, Jones AJ, Shelper TB, Simpson M, Lang R, Poulsen SA, Sleebs BE and Avery VM. Screening the MMV Pathogen Box across multiple pathogens reclassifies starting points for open source drug discovery. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.  2017 Aug 24; 61(9): e00379-17.

Leven M, Knaab TC, Held J, Duffy S, Meister S, Fischli C, Meitzner D, Lehmann U, Lungerich B, Kuna K, Stahlke P, Delves MJ, Buchholz M, Winzeler EA, Avery VM, Mordmüller B, Wittlin S and Kurz T. 3-Hydroxy-N’-arylidenepropanehydrazonamides with halo-substituted phenanthrene scaffolds cure P. berghei-infected mice when administered perorally. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2017 July 27 60(14): 6036-6044.

Duffy S and Avery VM. Plasmodium falciparum in vitro continuous culture conditions: a comparison of parasite susceptibility and tolerance to anti-malarial drugs throughout the asexual intra-erythrocytic life cycle. International Journal of Parasitology: drugs and drug resistance. 2017 July 15; 7(3): 295-302.

Marco M, Deyou T, Gruhonjic A, Holleran J, Duffy S, Heydenreich M,  Firtzpatrick PA, Landberg G, Koch A, Derese S, Pelletier J,  Avery VM, Erdélyi M and Yenesew A. Pterocarpans and isoflavones from the roots of Millettia micans and of Millettia dura. Phytochemistry Letters. 2017; 21: 216-222.

Senadeera SP, Duffy S, Avery VM and Carroll AR. Antiplasmodial β-triketones from the flowers of the Australian tree Angophora woodsiana. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 2017 June 1; 27(11): 2602-2607.

Atilaw Y, Duffy S, Heydenreich M, Muiva-Mutisya L, Avery VM, Erdelyi M* and Yenesew A.* Three Chalconoids and a Pterocarpene from the Roots of Tephrosia aequilata. Molecules. 2017 Feb 20; 22(2): 318.

Gilson PR, Tan C, Jarman KE, Lowes KN, Curtis JM, Nguyen W, Di Rago AE, Bullen HE, Prinz B, Duffy S, Baell JB, Hutton CA, Jousset Subroux H, Crabb BS, Avery VM, Cowman AF and Sleebs BE. Optimization of 2-Anilino 4-Amino Substituted Quinazolines into Potent Antimalarial Agents with Oral in Vivo Activity. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2017 Feb 9; 60(3): 1171-1188.

Nyandoro SS, Munissi JJ, Gruhonjic A, Duffy S, Pan F, Puttreddy R, Holleran JP, Fitzpatrick PA, Pelletier J, Avery VM, Rissanen K and Erdélyi M. Polyoxygenated Cyclohexenes and Other Constituents of Cleistochlamys kirkii Leaves. Journal of Natural Products. 2017 Jan 27; 80(1): 114-125.

Buedenbender L, Grkovic T, Duffy S, Ipek Kurtböke D, Avery VM and Carroll AR. Naseseazine C, a new anti-plasmodial dimeric diketopiperazine from a marine sediment derived Streptomyces sp. Tedrahedron Letters. 2016 Dec 28; 57(52): 5893-5895.

Baragaña B, Norcross NR, Wilson C, Porzelle A, Hallyburton I, Grimaldi R, Osuna-Cabello M, Norval S, Riley J, Stojanovski L, Simeons FR, Wyatt PG, Delves MJ, Meister S, Duffy S, Avery VM, Winzeler EA, Sinden RE, Wittlin S, Frearson JA, Gray DW, Fairlamb AH, Waterson D, Campbell SF, Willis P, Read KD and Gilbert IH. Discovery of a Quinoline-4-carboxamide Derivative with a Novel Mechanism of Action, Multistage Antimalarial Activity, and Potent in Vivo Efficacy. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2016 Nov 10; 59(21): 9672-9685.

Williamson AE, Ylioja PM, Robertson MN, Antonova-Koch Y, Avery V, Baell JB, Batchu H, Batra S, Burrows JN, Bhattacharyya S, Calderon F, Charman SA, Clark J, Crespo B, Dean M, Debbert SL, Delves M, Dennis AS, Deroose F, Duffy S, Fletcher S, Giaever G, Hallyburton I, Gamo FJ, Gebbia M, Guy RK, Hungerford Z, Kirk K, Lafuente-Monasterio MJ, Lee A, Meister S, Nislow C, Overington JP, Papadatos G, Patiny L, Pham J, Ralph SA, Ruecker A, Ryan E, Southan C, Srivastava K, Swain C, Tarnowski MJ, Thomson P, Turner P, Wallace IM, Wells TN, White K, White L, Willis P, Winzeler EA, Wittlin S and Todd MH. Open Source Drug Discovery: Highly Potent Antimalarial Compounds Derived from the Tres Cantos Arylpyrroles. ACS Central Science. 2016 Oct 26; 2(10): 687-701.

Kato N, Comer E, Sakata-Kato T, Sharma A, Sharma M, Maetani M, Bastien J, Brancucci NM, Bittker JA, Corey V, Clarke D, Derbyshire ER, Dornan G, Duffy S, Eckley S, Itoe MA, Koolen KM, Lewis TA, Lui PS, Lukens AK, Lund E, March S, Meibalan E, Meier BC, McPhail J, Mitasev B, Moss EL, Sayes M, VanGessel Y, Wawer MJ, Yoshinaga T, Zeeman AM, Avery VM, Bhatia SN, Burke JE, Catteruccia F, Clardy JC, Clemons PA, Dechering KJ, Duvall JR, Foley MA, Gusovsky F, Kocken CH, Marti M, Morningstar ML, Munoz B, Neafsey DE, Sharma A, Winzeler EA, Wirth DF, Scherer CA and Schreiber SL. Diversity-oriented synthesis yields novel multistage antimalarial inhibitors. Nature. 2016 Sep 7; 538(7625): 344-349.

Van Voorhis WC, Adams JH, Adelfio R, Ahyong V, Akabas MH, Alano P, Alday A, Alemán Resto Y, Alsibaee A, Alzualde A, Andrews KT, Avery SV, Avery VM, Ayong L, Baker M, Baker S, Ben Mamoun C, Bhatia S, Bickle Q, Bounaadja L, Bowling T, Bosch J, Boucher LE, Boyom FF, Brea J, Brennan M, Burton A, Caffrey CR, Camarda G, Carrasquilla M, Carter D, Belen Cassera M, Chih-Chien Cheng K, Chindaudomsate W, Chubb A, Colon BL, Colón-López DD, Corbett Y, Crowther GJ, Cowan N, D’Alessandro S, Le Dang N, Delves M, DeRisi JL, Du AY, Duffy S, Abd El-Salam El-Sayed S, Ferdig MT, Fernández Robledo JA, Fidock DA, Florent I, Fokou PV, Galstian A, Gamo FJ, Gokool S, Gold B, Golub T, Goldgof GM, Guha R, Guiguemde WA, Gural N, Guy RK, Hansen MA, Hanson KK, Hemphill A, Hooft van Huijsduijnen R, Horii T, Horrocks P, Hughes TB, Huston C, Igarashi I, Ingram-Sieber K, Itoe MA, Jadhav A, Naranuntarat Jensen A, Jensen LT, Jiang RH, Kaiser A, Keiser J, Ketas T, Kicka S, Kim S, Kirk K, Kumar VP, Kyle DE, Lafuente MJ, Landfear S, Lee N, Lee S, Lehane AM, Li F, Little D, Liu L, Llinás M, Loza MI, Lubar A, Lucantoni L, Lucet I, Maes L, Mancama D, Mansour NR, March S, McGowan S, Medina Vera I, Meister S, Mercer L, Mestres J, Mfopa AN, Misra RN, Moon S, Moore JP, Morais Rodrigues da Costa F, Müller J, Muriana A, Nakazawa Hewitt S, Nare B, Nathan C, Narraidoo N, Nawaratna S, Ojo KK, Ortiz D, Panic G, Papadatos G, Parapini S, Patra K, Pham N, Prats S, Plouffe DM, Poulsen SA, Pradhan A, Quevedo C, Quinn RJ, Rice CA, Abdo Rizk M, Ruecker A, St Onge R, Salgado Ferreira R, Samra J, Robinett NG, Schlecht U, Schmitt M, Silva Villela F, Silvestrini F, Sinden R, Smith DA, Soldati T, Spitzmüller A, Stamm SM, Sullivan DJ, Sullivan W, Suresh S, Suzuki BM, Suzuki Y, Swamidass SJ, Taramelli D, Tchokouaha LR, Theron A, Thomas D, Tonissen KF, Townson S, Tripathi AK, Trofimov V, Udenze KO, Ullah I, Vallieres C, Vigil E, Vinetz JM, Voong Vinh P, Vu H, Watanabe NA, Weatherby K, White PM, Wilks AF, Winzeler EA, Wojcik E, Wree M, Wu W, Yokoyama N, Zollo PH, Abla N, Blasco B, Burrows J, Laleu B, Leroy D, Spangenberg T, Wells T and Willis PA. Open Source Drug Discovery with the Malaria Box Compound Collection for Neglected Diseases and Beyond. PLOS Pathogens. 2016 Jul 28; 12(7): e1005763.

Norcross NR, Baragaña B, Wilson C, Hallyburton I, Osuna-Cabello M, Norval S, Riley J, Stojanovski L, Simeons FR, Porzelle A, Grimaldi R, Wittlin S, Duffy S, Avery VM, Meister S, Sanz L, Jiménez-Díaz B, Angulo-Barturen I, Ferrer S, Martínez MS, Gamo FJ, Frearson JA, Gray DW, Fairlamb AH, Winzeler EA, Waterson D, Campbell SF, Willis P, Read KD and Gilbert IH. Trisubstituted Pyrimidines as Efficacious and Fast-acting Antimalarials. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2016 Jul 14; 59(13): 6101-6120.

Scott FJ, Khalaf AI, Duffy S, Avery VM and Suckling CJ. Selective anti-malarial minor groove binders. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 2016 Jul 15; 26(14): 3326-3329.

Duffy S, Loganathan S, Holleran JP and Avery VM. Large scale production of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes for malaria drug discovery. Nature Protocols. 2016 May; 11(5): 976-992.

Scott FJ, Khalaf AI, Giordani F, Wong PE, Duffy S, Barrett M, Avery VM and Suckling CJ. An evaluation of Minor Groove Binders as anti-Trypanosoma brucei brucei therapeutics. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2016 Mar 29; 116: 116-125.

Deyou T, Gumula I, Pan F, Gruhonjic A, Mumo M, Holleran J, Duffy S, Fitzpatrick P, Heydenreich M, Landberg G, Derese S, Avery VM, Rissanen K, Erdelyi M and Yenesew A. Rotenoids, Flavonoids and Chalcones from the Root Bark of Millettia usaramensis. Journal of Natural Products. 2015 Dec 24; 78(12): 2932-2939.

Phillips MA, Lotharius J, Marsh K, White J, Dayan A, White KL, Njoroge JW, El Mazouni F, Lao Y, Kokkonda S, Tomchick DR, Deng X, Laird T, Bhatia SN, March S, Ng CL, Fidock DA, Wittlin S, Lafuente-Monasterio M, Benito FJ, Alonso LM, Martinez MS, Jimenez-Diaz MB, Bazaga SF, Angulo-Barturen I, Haselden JN, Louttit J, Cui Y, Sridhar A, Zeeman AM, Kocken C, Sauerwein R, Dechering K, Avery VM, Duffy S, Delves M, Sinden R, Ruecker A, Wickham KS, Rochford R, Gahagen J, Iyer L, Riccio E, Mirsalis J, Bathhurst I, Rueckle T, Ding X, Campo B, Leroy D, Rogers MJ, Rathod PK, Burrows JN and Charman SA. A long-duration dihydrooroate dehydrogenase inhibitor (DSM265) for prevention and treatment of malaria. Science: Translational Medicine. 2015 Jul 15; 7(296): 296ra111.

Helgren TR, Sciotti RJ, Lee P, Duffy S, Avery VM, Igbinoba O, Akoto M and Hagen TJ. The synthesis, antimalarial activity and CoMFA analysis of novel aminoalkylated quercetin analogs. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 2015 Jan 15; 25(2): 327-332.

Malmquist NA, Sundriyal S, Caron J, Chen P, Witkowski B, Menard D, Suwanarusk R, Renia L, Nosten F, Belén Jiménez-Díaz M, Angulo-Barturen I, Martinez MS, Ferrer S, Sanz LM, Gamo FJ, Wittlin S, Duffy S, Avery VM, Ruecker A, Delves MJ, Sinden RE, Fuchter MJ and Scherf A. Histone Methyltransferase Inhibitors are Orally Bioavailable, Fast-Acting Molecules with Activity against Different Species Causing Malaria in Humans. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2015 Feb; 59(2): 950-959.

Belén Jiménez-Díaz M, Ebert D, Salinas Y, Pradhan A, Lehane AM, Myrand-Lapierre ME, O’Loughlin KG, Shackleford DM, Justino de Almeida M, Carrillo AK, Clark JA, Dennis AS, Diep J, Deng X, Duffy S, Endsley AN, Fedewa G, Guiguemde WA, Gomez MG, Holbrook G, Horst J, Kim CC, Liu J, Lee MC, Matheny A, Santos Martinez M, Miller G, Rodriguez-Alejandre A, Sanz L, Sigal M, Spillman NJ, Stein PD, Wang Z, Zhu F, Waterson D, Knapp S, Shelat A, Avery VM, Fidock DA, Gamo F-J, Charman SA, Mirsalis JC, Ma H, Ferrer S, Kirk K, Angulo-Barturen I, Kyle DE, DeRisi JL, Floyd DM and Guy RK. (+)-SJ733, a clinical candidate for malaria that acts through ATP4 to induce rapid host-mediated clearance of Plasmodium. PNAS. 2014 Dec 16; 111(50): E5455-5462.

Leven M, Held J, Duffy S, Tschan S, Sax S, Kamber J, Frank W, Kuna K, Geffken D, Siethoff C, Barth S, Avery VM, Wittlin S, Mordmüller B and Kurz T. Blood schizontocidal and gametocytocidal activity of 3-hydroxy-N’-arylidenepropane-hydrazonamides: A new class of antiplasmodial compounds. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2014 Oct 9; 57(19): 7971-7976.

Ramachandran S, Hameed P S, Srivastava A, Shanbhag G,  Morayya S, Rautela N, Awasthy D, Kavanagh S, Bharath S, Reddy J, Panduga V, Prabhakar KR, Saralaya R, Nanduri R, Raichurkar A, Meenasinikai S, Achar V, Jiménez-Díaz MB, Martínez MS, Angulo-Barturen I, Ferrer S, Sanz LM, Gamo FJ, Duffy S, Avery VM, Waterson D, Lee MC, Coburn-Flynn O, Fidock DA, Iyer PS, Narayanan S, Hosagrahara V and  Sambandamurthy VK. N-aryl-2-aminobenzimidazoles: Novel, Efficacious, Antimalarial lead compounds. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2014 Aug 14; 57(15): 6642-6652.

Hameed P S, Chinnapattu M, Shanbag G, Manjrekar P, Koushik K, Raichurkar A, Patil V, Jatheendranath S, Rudrapatna SS, Barde SP, Rautela N, Awasthy D, Morayya S, Narayan C, Kavanagh S, Saralaya R, Bharath S, Viswanath P, Mukherjee K, Bandodkar B, Srivastava A, Panduga V, Reddy J, Prabhakar KR, Sinha A, Jimenez-Diaz MB, Martinez MS, Angulo-Barturen I, Ferrer S, Sanz LM, Gamo FJ, Duffy S, Avery VM, Magistrado PA, Lukens AK, Wirth DF, Waterson D, Balasubramanian V, Iyer PS, Narayanan S, Hosagrahara V, Sambandamurthy VK and Ramachandran S.  Aminoazabenzimidazoles, a Novel Class of Orally Active Antimalarial agents. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2014 July 10; 57(13): 5702-5713.

Hansen FK, Sumanadasa SDM, Stenzel K, Duffy S, Meister S, Marek L, Schmetter R, Kuna K, Hamacher A,  Mordmüller B, Kassack MU, Winzeler EA, Avery VM, Andrews KT and Kurz T. Discovery of HDAC Inhibitors with Potent Activity Against Multiple Malaria Parasite Life Cycle Stages. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2014 May 22; 82C: 204-213.

Trenholme K, Marek L, Duffy S, Pradel G, Fisher G, Hansen FK, Skinner-Adams TS, Butterworth A, Ngwa CJ,  Moecking J, Goodman CD, McFadden GI, Sumanadasa SD, Fairlie DP, Avery VM, Kurz T and Andrews KT. Lysine acetylation in sexual stage malaria parasites is a target for antimalarial small molecules. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2014 Jul; 58(7): 3666-3678.

Avery VM, Bashyam S, Burrows JN, Duffy S, Papadatos G,  Puthukkuti S, Sambandan Y, Singh S, Spangenberg T, Waterson D and Willis P. Screening and hit evaluation of a chemical library against blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum. Malaria Journal.  2014 27 May; 13(1): 190.

Lotharius J, Gamo-Benito FJ, Angulo-Barturen I, Clark J, Connelly M, Ferrer-Bazaga S, Parkinson T, Viswanath P, Bandodkar B, Rautela N, Bharath S, Duffy S, Avery VM, Möhrle JJ, Guy RK and Wells T. Repositioning: the fast track to new anti-malarial medicines? Malaria Journal. 2014 April 14; 13: 143.

Le Manach C, Gonzalez Cabrera D, Douelle F, Nchinda AT, Younis Y, Taylor D, Wiesner L, White KL, Ryan E, March C, Duffy S, Avery VM, Waterson D, Witty MJ, Wittlin S, Charman SA, Street LJ and Chibale K. Medicinal Chemistry Optimization of Antiplasmodial Imidazopyridazine Hits from High Throughput Screening of a SoftFocus Kinase Library: Part 1. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2014 March 27; 57(6): 2789-2798.

Hansen FK, Skinner-Adams TS, Duffy S, Marek L, Sumanadasa SD, Kuna K, Held J, Avery VM, Andrews KT and Kurz T. Synthesis, antimalarial properties and SAR studies of alkoxyurea-based HDAC inhibitors. ChemMedChem. [invited review] 2014 March; 9(3): 665-670.

Neve JE, Wijesekera HP, Duffy S, Jenkins ID, Ripper JA, Teague SJ, Campitelli M, Garavelas A, Nikolakopoulos G, Le PV, de A Leone P, Pham NB, Shelton P, Fraser N, Carroll AR, Avery VM, McCrae C, Williams N and Quinn RJ. Euodenine A: A small-molecule agonist of human TLR4. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2014 Feb 27; 57(4): 1252-1275.

González Cabrera D, Le Manach C, Douelle F, Younis Y, Feng T-S, Paquet T, Nchinda AT, Street LJ,  Taylor D, de Kock C, Wiesner L, Duffy S, White KL, Zabiulla K, Sambandan Y, Bashyam S, Waterson D, Witty MJ, Charman SA, Avery VM, Wittlin S and Chibale K. 2,4-Diaminothienopyrimidines as Orally Active Antimalarial Agents. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2014 Feb 13; 57(3): 1014-1022.

Duffy S and Avery VM. Identification of inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte development. Malaria Journal. 2013 Nov 11; 12(1): 408.

Lucantoni L, Duffy S, Adjalley SH, Fidock DA and Avery VM. Identification of MMV Malaria Box Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Early-Stage Gametocytes, Using a Luciferase-based High-Throughput Assay. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2013 Dec; 57(12): 6050-6062.

Davis RA, Duffy S, Fletcher S, Avery VM and R J Quinn. Thiaplakortones A-D: Antimalarial Thiazine Alkaloids from the Australian Marine Sponge Plakortis lita. Journal of Organic Chemistry.  2013 Oct 4; 78(19): 9608-9613.

Teguh S, Klonis N, Duffy S, Lucantoni L, Avery VM, Hutton C, Baell J and Tilley L. Novel conjugated quinoline-indoles compromise Plasmodium falciparum mitochondrial function and show promising antimalarial activity. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2013 Aug 8; 56(15): 6200-6215.

 Nilsen A, LaCrue A, White KL, Forquer IP, Cross RM, Marfurt J, Mather M, Delves MJ, Shackleford DM, Saenz F, Morrisey JM, Steuten J, Mutka T, Li Y, Wirjanata G, Ryan E, Duffy S, Xu Kelly J, Facino Sebayang B, Zeeman A-M, Noviyanti R, Sinden RE, HM Kocken C, Price RN, Avery VM, Angulo-Barturen I, Jiménez-Díaz MB, Ferrer S, Herreros E, Sanz LM, Javier Gamo Benito F, Bathurst I, Burrows J, Siegl P, Guy R. Kiplin, Winter RW, Vaidya AB, Charman SA, Kyle DE, Manetsch R and  Riscoe MK. Quinolone-3-Diarylethers: a new class of antimalarial drug.  Science: Translational Medicine. 2013 Mar 20; 5(177): 177ra37.

Carroll AR, Avery VM, Duffy S, Forster PI and Guymer GP. Watsonianone A – C, anti-plasmodial b-triketones from the Australian Tree, Corymbia watsoniana. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 2013 Jan 21; 11(3): 453-458.

Edlin CD, Morgans G, Winks S, Duffy S, Avery VM, Wittlin S, Waterson D, Burrows J and Bryans J. Identification and In-Vitro ADME Assessment of a Series of Novel Anti-Malarial Agents Suitable for Hit to Lead Chemistry. ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 2012 May 28; 3(7): 570-573.

 Davis RA, Buchanan MS, Duffy S, Avery VM, Charman SA, Charman WN, White KL, Shackleford DM, Edstein MD, Andrews KT, Camp D, and Quinn RJ. Antimalarial Activity of Pyrroloiminoquinones from the Australian Marine Sponge Zyzzya sp.  Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2012 Jun 28; 55(12): 5851-5858.

Carroll AR, Nash BD, Duffy S and Avery VM. Albopunctatone, an Antiplasmodial Anthrone-Anthraquinone from the Australian Ascidian Didemnum albopunctatum. Journal of Natural Products. 2012 June 22; 75(6): 1206-1209.

Younis Y, Douelle F, Feng T-S, González Cabrera D, Le Manach C, Nchinda AT, Duffy S,  White  KL, Shackleford DM, Morizzi J,  Mannila J,  Kasiram Katneni KL,  Bhamidipati R,  Zabiulla KM,  Joseph JT,  Bashyam S,  Waterson D, Witty MJ, Hardick D, Wittlin S, Avery V, Charman SA and Chibale K. 3,5-Diaryl-2-aminopyridines as a Novel Class of Orally Active Antimalarials Demonstrating Single Dose Cure in Mice and Clinical Candidate Potential. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2012 Apr 12; 55(7): 3479-3487.

Carroll AR, Wild SJ, Duffy S and Avery VM.  Kororamide A, a new tribrominated indole alkaloid from the Australian bryozoan Amathia tortuosa. Tetrahedron Letters. 2012; 53: 2873-2875.

Duffy S and Avery VM. Development and Optimization of a Novel 384-Well Anti-malarial Imaging Assay Validated for High-Throughput Screening. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. 2012 Jan; 86(1): 84-92.

Hiranrat A, Mahabusarakam W, Carroll AR, Duffy S and Avery VM. Tomentosones A and B, Hexacyclic Phloroglucinol Derivatives from the Thai Shrub Rhodomyrtus tomentosa. Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2012 Jan 6; 77(1): 680-3.

Carroll AR, Duffy S, Sykes M and Avery VM. Wilsoniamines A and B: novel alkaloids from the temperate Australian bryozoan, Amathia wilsoni. Org Biomol Chem. 2011 Jan 21;9(2): 604-9.

Yu M, Price JR, Jensen P, Lovitt CJ, Shelper T, Duffy S, Windus LC, Avery VM, Rutledge PJ and Todd MH. Copper, Nickel, and Zinc Cyclam-Amino Acid and Cyclam-Peptide Complexes may be Synthesized with “Click” Chemistry and Are Noncyctotoxic. Inorg Chem. 2011 Dec 19; 50(24): 12823-12835.

Yang X, Feng Y, Duffy S, Avery VM, Camp D, Quinn RJ and Davis RA. A New Quinoline Epoxide from the Australian Plant Drummondita calida. Planta Medica. 2011 Sep; 77(14): 1644-1647.

Carroll AR, Duffy S and Avery VM. Aplidiopsamine A, an antiplasmodial alkaloid from the temperate Australian ascidian, Aplidiopsis confluata. Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2010 Dec 3;75(23): 8291-4.

Ban K, Duffy S, Khakham Y, Avery VM, Hughes A, Montagnat O, Katneni K, Ryan E and Baell JB. 3-alkylthio-1,2,4-triazine dimers with potent antimalarial activity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010 Oct 15;20(20): 6024-9.

Nhu D, Duffy S, Avery VM, Hughes A and Baell JB. Antimalarial 3-Arylamino-6-benzylamino-1, 2, 4, 5-tetrazines.  Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2010 Aug 1; 20(15): 4496-8.

Davis RA, Duffy S, Avery VM, Camp D, Hooper JNA and Quinn RJ. (+)-7-Bromotrypargine: an antimalarial β-carboline from the Australian marine sponge Ancorina sp. Tetrahedron Letters. 2010; 51 (4), pp. 583-585.

Yang X, Davis RA, Buchanan MS, Duffy S, Avery VM, Camp D and Quinn RJ. Antimalarial Bromotyrosine Derivatives from the Australian Marine Sponge Hyattella sp. Journal of Natural Products. 2010 May 28;73(5): 985-7.

Guiguemde WA, Shelat AA, Bouck D, Duffy S, Crowther GJ, Davis PH, Smithson DC, Connelly M, Clark J, Zhu F, Jiménez-Díaz MB, Martinez MS, Wilson EB, Tripathi AK, Gut J, Sharlow ER, Bathurst I, El Mazouni F, Fowble JW, Forquer I, McGinley PL, Castro S, Angulo-Barturen I, Ferrer S, Rosenthal PJ, Derisi JL, Sullivan DJ, Lazo JS, Roos DS, Riscoe MK, Phillips MA, Rathod PK, Van Voorhis WC, Avery VM and Guy RK. Chemical genetics of Plasmodium falciparum. Nature. 2010 May 20;465(7296): 311-5.

Buchanan MS, Davis RA, Duffy S, Avery VM and Quinn RJ. Antimalarial benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from the rainforest tree Doryphora sassafras. Journal of Natural Products. 2009 Aug;72(8): 1541-3.

Mueller D, Davis RA, Duffy S, Avery VM, Camp D and Quinn RJ. Antimalarial activity of azafluorenone alkaloids from the Australian tree Mitrephora diversifolia. Journal of Natural Products. 2009 Aug;72(8): 1538-40.

Carroll AR, Duffy S and Avery VM. Citronamides A and B, tetrapeptides from the Australian sponge Citronia astra. Journal of Natural Products. 2009 Apr;72(4): 764-8.

Mitchell JK, Pitcher D, McArdle BM, Alnefelt T, Duffy S, Avery V and Quinn RJ. Identifying common metalloprotease inhibitors by protein fold types using Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Dec 1;17(23): 6521-4.

Davis RA, Carroll AR, Duffy S, Avery VM, Guymer GP, Forster PI and Quinn RJ. Endiandrin A, a potent glucocorticoid receptor binder isolated from the Australian plant Endiandra anthropophagorum. Journal of Natural Products. 2007 Jul;70(7): 1118-21.


2020: Molecular Approaches to malaria, Lorne, Victoria, Australia

2019: ASTMH 68th Annual Meeting, National Harbour, USA

2019: Australian Society for Parasitology Annual Conference, Adelaide, Australia

2018: Australian Society for Parasitology Annual Conference, Melbourne, Australia

2018: First Malaria World Congress, Melbourne, Australia

2017: Malaria in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

2017: Australian Society for Parasitology Annual Conference, Leura, NSW, Australia

2016: XIX International Congress for Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Brisbane, Australia

2016: Molecular Approaches to Malaria, Lorne, Victoria, Australia

2013: Malaria in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

2012: Molecular Approaches to Malaria, Lorne, Victoria, Australia

2011: Research advances in malaria conference, Tres Cantos, Spain

2010: ASTMH 59th Annual Meeting, Atanta, Georgia, US

2009: Gordon Research Conference, Malaria, Biology and host parasite interactions, Oxford, UK

2008: MMV’s 8th Annual Stakeholders’ Meeting, Accra, Ghana

2008: Molecular Approaches to Malaria, Lorne, Victoria, Australia


2009: ASTMH/BMGF Annual Meeting Travel Award

Scholarship/University Awards:

2018: National Health and Medical Research Council Postgraduate Scholarships (Dora Lush)

2018: Griffith University Postgraduate Top-Up Scholarship

2018: Discovery Biology Post Graduate Top-Up Scholarship



Fink K, Dooley DJ, Meder WP, Suman-Chauhan N, Duffy S, Clusmann H, Göthert M. Inhibition of neuronal Ca(2+) influx by gabapentin and pregabalin in the human neocortex. Neuropharmacology. 2002 Feb;42(2): 229-36